Noninvasive apparatus and method for cranial brain stimulation
The present of NeuroAudit innovation introduces non-invasive brain stimulation and, more particularly, refers to non-invasive brain stimulation in order to create a desired result - cognitive and clinical activity geared towards boosting cognition.
1) Ultrasound (US) has received widespread attention as an emerging technology for targeted, non-invasive neuromodulation based on its ability to provoke electro-physiological and motor response. As the effect is achieved through constructive interference of the incident waves, a focal spot can be formed at depth within the tissue without affecting cells along the propagation path closer to the transducer.
2) Hearing is a recognized auditory effect which allows humans to perceive sounds of a much higher frequency than would ordinarily be audible using the physical inner ear, usually by stimulation of the base of the cochlea through bone conduction. Normal human hearing is recognized as having an upper bound of 15–28 kHz, depending on the person. second option proposes that ultrasonic signals resonate the brain and are modulated down to frequencies that the cochlea can then detect.
Japanese researcher Tsutomu Oohashi have coined the term hypersonic effect to describe the results of controversial study supporting audibility of ultrasonic. Tsutomu Oohashi described a series of objective and subjective experiments in which subjects were played music, sometimes containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above 25 kHz and sometimes not. Tsutomu Oohashi claims that, although humans cannot consciously hear ultrasound the presence or absence of those frequencies has a measurable effect on their physiological and psychological reactions. The hypersonic effect did not occur when the HFCs were presented via headphones.
The 2006 study also investigated the comfortable listening level (CLL) of music with and without HFCs, an alternative way of measuring subject response to the sound.
However, there are contradictions in Oohashi's results. No effect was detected on listeners in the Oohashi study when only the ultrasonic (frequencies higher than 24 kHz) portion of the test material was played. The demonstrated effect was only present when comparing full-bandwidth to bandwidth limited material.
Research from NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) laboratory have attempted unsuccessfully to reproduce Oohashi's results (NeuroAudit improved 100% of a conscious and unconscious effect that has clinical and cognitive impact).
Studies cited as contrary evidence did not address the physiological brain response to high-frequency audio, only the subject's conscious response to it. NeuroAudit researcher say that to better understand the clinical side we need to understand that the auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans. It is located bilaterally, roughly at the upper sides of the temporal lobes.
The auditory cortex takes part in the Spectro temporal, meaning involving time and frequency, analysis of the inputs passed on from the ear. The cortex also filters and passes on the information to the dual stream model of speech processing. The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. Neurons in the auditory cortex are organized according to the frequency of sound to which they respond best.
The primary auditory cortex is subject to modulation by numerous neurotransmitters and has distinct responses to sounds in the gamma band. It has been theorized that gamma frequencies are resonant frequencies of certain areas of the brain. Sounds entering the auditory cortex are treated differently depending on whether or not they register as speech. When people listen to speech, according to the strong and weak speech mode hypotheses, they, respectively, engage perceptual mechanisms unique to speech or engage their knowledge of language as a whole. NeuroAudit researcher believe that ability has been found to an innovative psychoacoustics neuromodulation technology to treat steered for brain disorders.
NeuroAudit researcher say that currently there is no cure for Alzheimer’s, but this can change in the future.
Potentially promising drug and antibody therapies are often limited by their inability to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a naturally occurring barrier of cells that inhibits the diffusion of drugs or toxins into the central nervous system. Focused ultrasound is an early-stage, non-invasive, therapeutic technology with the potential to improve the quality of life and decrease the cost of care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Focuses beams of ultrasonic energy precisely and accurately on targets deep in the brain without damaging surrounding normal tissue, where the beams converge, the ultrasound produces a variety of therapeutic effects without incisions or radiation. Similarly, current treatments for depression include medications, electroconvulsive therapy, surgery (radio frequency or laser ablation, deep brain stimulation), or stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife, linear accelerator), all of which have limitations and side effects. Focused ultrasound has the potential to provide an alternative to invasive surgery or radiosurgery via precise thermal ablation, or to augment drug therapy.
NeuroAudit had created this invention which allows a step forward in the use of brain stimulation via the blood for new applications such as creating new sensation in the brain and in the treatment of number of brain diseases such as mentioned above.
Description of Embodiments
Head of NeuroAudit, Dan Anzyo, marked the changes in the hemoglobin concentration on the surface of the brain before, during and after "stroop tests". The measurements of the hemoglobin concentration were performed in four comparative experiments indicating the difference of the brain activity obtained while unique stimulate was applied compared to situations in which no stimulation was applied. The inventors of the present invention hypothesize that this is due to a reduction in distractions and therefore a better ability to concentrate on the task. Hence the inventors of the present invention had contemplated the utilization of stimulating the brain according to a method according to some embodiments of the present invention in the treatment of number of brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer's, ADHD, and depression.
NeuroAudit's invention provides features, aspects and advantages of changes in the hemoglobin concentration on the surface of the brain. The measurements of the hemoglobin concentration were performed in four comparative experiments indicating the difference of the brain activity obtained while stimulating the brain with differences of oxygen level on the surface of the left brain and the right brain. Widespread differences were found comparing the of amount of oxygen in the blood supplied to the two brain hemispheres. The processing of speech, including linear reasoning functions of language such as grammar and word production, take place in the left cerebral hemisphere where Broca's and Wernicke's areas are located. Extracting oxygen from the blood flow is essential to the brain function. Thus, measuring oxygen levels in the blood flow can be utilized in a variety of ways for evaluating the brain function that has clinical and cognitive impact.
NeuroAudit inventors had created an invention that allows a step forward in the use of brain stimulation via the blood for new applications such as creating new sensation and in the treatment of number of brain diseases such as mentioned above. Basic assumption is that the method overrides any potentially damaged tracks (e.g., ear canal, eardrum, middle ear bones / bone bones, window interface around windows, and / or cochlear defects). Another basic assumption is that premise is that these alternative channels are not affected by age.
The technology developed in NeuroAudit allows of a conscious and unconscious effect that has a measurable clinical and cognitive impact.